Healthcare associated pneumonia: An old concept at a hospital with high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance
Background: One of several reasons that the concept of healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) was dismissed was the same presence of multidrug resistant organism (MDRO) between community-acquired pneumonia and HCAP at countries with the low prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). However, this finding could be unsuitable for countries with the high rates of AMR.
Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted at the respiratory department of Cho Ray hospital from September 2015 to April 2016. All adult patients suitable for community acquired pneumonia (CAP) with risk factor for healthcare-associated infection were included.
Results: We found out 130 subjects. The median age was 71 years (interquartile range 57-81). The male/female ratio was 1.55:1. Prior hospitalization was the most common risk factor for healthcare-associated infection. There were 35 cases (26.9%) with culture-positive (sputum and/or bronchial lavage). Isolated bacteria included Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9 cases), Klebsiella pneumoniae (9 cases), Escherichia coli (4 cases), Acinetobacter baumannii (6 cases), and Staphylococcus aureus (7 cases) with the characteristic of AMR similar to the bacterial spectrum associated with hospital-acquired pneumonia.
Conclusion: MDROs were detected frequently in CAP patients with risk factor for healthcare-associated infection at the hospital with the high prevalence of AMR. This requires the urgent need to evaluate risk factors for MDRO infection in community-onset pneumonia when the concept of HCAP is no longer used.