SHAPE OPTIMIZATION OF RETAINING WALLS
The article presents the optimal shape of gravity retaining walls and cantilever retaining walls based on the combining between the Differential Evolution method and theories of Rankin and Coulomb for earth pressures. The optimal retaining walls, which are subjected to common loads such as dead loads, equivalent live loads and earth pressures, have the least material cost. They also satisfy all requirements on the safety of sliding, the safety of overturning and safety of soil bearing capacity. In addition, the cantilever retaining walls meet the safety of flexural strength and shear strength. The article also presents the optimal retaining walls with various values of parameters such as wall height, soil bearing capacity, angle of internal friction of backfill, equivalent live load and slope of backfill surface.